The word oleander appears as far back as the first century AD, when the Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides cited it as one of the terms used by the Romans for the plant. [28] This malaise can continue for several years until the plant completely dies—there is no known cure. Medical problems caused by plants: Plant Toxins, Cardiac Glycosides. For this reason gardeners are advised to prune mature shrubs in the autumn to shape and induce lush new growth and flowering for the following spring. Larvae of the common crow butterfly (Euploea core) and oleander hawk-moth (Daphnis nerii) also feed on oleanders, and they retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to potential predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps. The scientific name for oleander in Nerium oleander. [32] Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F),[16] though the leaves may be damaged. 79. Double flowered cultivars like 'Mrs Isadore Dyer' (deep pink), 'Mathilde Ferrier' (yellow) or 'Mont Blanc' (white) are enjoyed for their large, rose-like blooms and strong fragrance. [8], The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name alili or oualilt for the flower.[9]. This inhibits the circulation of water in the tissue of the plant, causing individual branches to die until the entire plant is consumed. It grows to between 2 and 5 m in height and has long, narrow leaves almost 13 to 30 cm in length and typically grouped in threes around the stem. Oleander plants (Nerium oleander) are among the most versatile of shrubs, with dozens of uses in southern and coastal landscapes. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. Activated charcoal may also be administered to help absorb any remaining toxins. These include 'Little Red', 'Petite White', 'Petite Pink' and 'Petite Salmon', which grow to about 8 feet (2.4 m) at maturity.[35]. Extremities may become pale and cold due to poor or irregular circulation. [Note 3] The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles 5–23 cm (2.0–9.1 in) long, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. Xylem primarily transports water and other nutrients from the soil and phloem primarily transports sugars. $22.50$22.50. It is tolerant to both drought and inundation, but not to prolonged frost. The genus Nerium is a monotypic (just one species, Nerium oleander) evergreen shrub that is native to Asia, North Africa, and Europe. No serious insect or disease problems. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plant in parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. All fresh or dry parts of the plant are toxic. Nerium is a genus of one species – Nerium oleander that is native to Europe and Asia. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Toxicity studies of animals administered oleander extract concluded that birds and rodents were observed to be relatively insensitive to oleander cardiac glycosides. Winter hardy to USDA Zones 8-10. [6] ascribed to oleander's toxicity to humans. [36][37][38], In reviewing oleander toxicity cases seen in-hospital, Lanford and Boor[39] concluded that, except for children who might be at greater risk, "the human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of moderate intentional consumption (suicide attempts). Oleander (Nerieae) 3. Nerium oleander (oleander) is an evergreen shrub of the Apocynaceae family that thrives principally in subtropical regions. Some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, and feed on the plants. Isadore Dyer' Large clusters of large fragrant soft rosy pink double flowers, often with one or more petals streaked or flecked with white, are born over a long period on this reliable old favorite. Container plants may be grown as shrubs or trained as ornamental standards. Oleander, Nerium, bears single or double flowers in various shade of white, yellow, pink, red, or purple from mid-spring to late summer. Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in large amounts. Several compounds in nerium exhibit toxicity, and it has historically been considered a poisonous plant. 1. The plant is tolerant of poor soils, intense heat, salt spray, and sustained drought – although it will flower and grow more vigorously with regular water. The Nerium oleander plant -- also known as Jericho rose -- captivates many with its delicate form and showy, fragrant flowers. A No-Fuss Evergreen Shrub with Huge Clusters of Red Flowers Some flowering shrubs are so labor-intensive that you may spend more time caring for them than enjoying their flowers. [44] Plant clippings are especially dangerous to horses, as they are sweet. In July 2009, several horses were poisoned in this manner from the leaves of the plant. Nerium oleander is planted in many subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Few plants can rival the showy flowers of oleander shrubs (Nerium oleander). They are often, but not always, sweet-scented. Since plants will tolerate some frost, consider leaving containers outside in fall until temperatures dip below 20 F. and return containers to a protected outdoor as soon as temperatures permit in spring. May be trained as a standard. In cold winter climates, oleander is a popular summer potted plant readily available at most nurseries. [58], There is an ancient account mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History,[52] who described a region in Pontus in Turkey where the honey was poisoned from bees having pollinated poisonous flowers, with the honey left as a poisonous trap for an invading army. Here’s what you need to know. For the multi-level marketing firm Nerium International, see, Other species in tribe Nerieae: Oleander's closest relatives within Apocynaceae. [citation needed], Digoxin immune fab is the best way to cure an oleander poisoning if inducing vomiting has no or minimal success, although it is usually used only for life-threatening conditions due to side effects. Nerium grows to 2–6 m (7–20 ft) tall. An extract of oleander contains naturally occurring phytochemicals (plant produced compounds) that have been removed from the structural material of the leaves of the plant. Overwinter in a cool location (40s F.) with moderate light and very little water or as a houseplant in a bright sunny but cool room with reduced water. In Zones 8-10, these plants are used in a variety of landscape applications including hedges, screens, foundation plantings and borders. All fresh or dry parts of the plant are toxic. Some scholars believe it to be the rhodon (rose), also called the 'Rose of Jericho', mentioned in apocryphal writings (Ecclesiasticus XXIV, 13)[49] dating back to between 450 and 180 BC.[50][51]. Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold but will rebound from the roots. Plants generally grow best when overwintering period is short. Over 400 cultivars have been named, with several additional flower colors not found in wild plants having been selected, including yellow, peach and salmon. As such it can be difficult to identify at first because gardeners may mistake the symptoms for those of drought stress or nutrient deficiency.[31]. [33], Oleander flowers are showy, profuse, and often fragrant, which makes them very attractive in many contexts. The oleander (Nerium oleander), also called rose laurel, is the only species of its genus and belongs to the dog poison family (Apocynaceae). Plant Family: Apocynads (Apocynoideae) 2. Leaves: leathery, lan… Plant saps can cause allergic skin reactions in some people. Hardy to U.S. … MOST RECENT. The flowers form in large clusters and come in shades of white, yellow, pink, and red. This fast-growing evergreen shrub or small tree can be used in your garden as a living screen or wall. (eds.) Oleander is a member of the Apocynaceae family, along with star jasmine and periwinkle. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. Smoke from burning plant material can also be quite toxic. What Does Oleander Mean? Each flower has five petals that spread out like the blades of a fan. The sap can cause skin irritation. [citation needed]. [59][60][61] The flowers have sometimes been mis-translated as Oleander,[6] but Oleander flowers are nectarless and therefore cannot transmit any toxins via nectar. Get to Know Oleander It produces fragrant, showy clusters of flowers from around May to October, coming in several color varieties. Leaves are light green and very glossy when young, before maturing to a dull dark green. It will bloom year round in warm climate areas and will flower all summer in other areas. [32] Once they are dormant they require little light and only occasional watering. [citation needed], Oleander sap can cause skin irritations, severe eye inflammation and irritation, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis. Purple, pink or white five-petaled funnel-shaped flowers in clusters (terminal cymes). Many cultivars, like 'Hawaii' or 'Turner's Carnival', are multi-colored, with brilliant striped corollas. [41], Ingestion of this plant can affect the gastrointestinal system, the heart, and the central nervous system. Prolonged contact with sap may cause skin irritation, eye inflamation and dermatitis. All oleanders contain cardenolides that exert positive inotropic effect on cardiac muscle. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. Tough and vigorous, it produces abundant clusters of single or double flowers in shades of red, pink, white, cream, yellow or purple. January 7, 2020. Common Name: Evergreen Oleander 6. altogether ca. Most cultivars will grow to 8 to 12 feet tall and almost as wide. Nerium oleander, commonly called oleander, is an upright, rounded evergreen sub-tropical to tropical shrub that is valued for its abundant, fragrant, summer to fall flowers. Cuttings may be taken in late summer. Virginia Commonwealth University. However, its bitterness renders it unpalatable to humans and most animals, so poisoning cases are rare and the general risk for human mortality is low. A native of southwestern Europe and East Asia, oleander can be found growing in sunny sites in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 11. [46][47] According to the American Cancer Society, the trials conducted so far have produced no evidence of benefit, while they did cause adverse side effects. It’s not all bad! [2] The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant nẽrion (νήριον), which is in turn derived from the Greek for water, nẽros (νηρός), because of the natural habitat of the oleander along rivers and streams. Nerium obesum) single flower, Adenium obesum var. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is another extremely toxic ornamental shrub. [18] The best method for preventing further spread of the disease is to prune infected oleanders to the ground immediately after the infection is noticed. [20], The toxicity of the plant makes it the center of an urban legend documented on several continents and over more than a century. [15] Further medical attention may be required depending on the severity of the poisoning and symptoms. [22][23][24] This is also the case with North American cities in the Pacific Northwest like Portland,[25] Seattle, and Vancouver. In another mention, of "wild bay" (Daphne agria), Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub. They therefore receive very few visits, as typical of many rewardless flower species. In Mediterranean climates oleanders can be expected to bloom from April through October, with the heaviest bloom usually occurring between May and June. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a striking evergreen shrub characterized by long, lance-shaped leaves, a resilient disposition and fragrant blooms in shades of reds, pinks, yellow and white. In fact, because of its hardiness, the plant is considered invasive in certain parts of the Southwest and around the Gulf Coast. The dried or fresh branches should not be used for spearing food, for preparing a cooking fire, or as a food skewer. Huxley, A.; Griffiths, M.; Levy, M. Nerium oleander is a highly toxic plant from the Apocynaceae family. In his book Enquiries into Plants of circa 300 BC, Theophrastus described (among plants that affect the mind) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine", he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful". 160 kinds 7. Beyond the traditional Mediterranean and subtropical range of oleander, the plant can also be cultivated in mild oceanic climates with the appropriate precautions. This medium-sized evergreen shrub produces an abundance of large loose clusters of five-petaled, funnel-shaped, red flowers all summer. In St. Louis, grow in containers or tubs that are overwintered indoors or as year-round houseplants. Widely cultivated as an ornamental shrub or as an informal hedge in warm climate areas, Nerium oleander is a beautiful medium-sized evergreen shrub. It is also hazardous for animals such as sheep, horses, cattle, and other grazing animals, with as little as 100 g being enough to kill an adult horse. During the winter they should be moved indoors, ideally into an unheated greenhouse or basement where they can be allowed to go dormant. With pruning, oleander can be kept at a shrub height, or it can be trained into a small tree reaching between 10 and 18 feet tall. For the underworld in Babylonian mythology, see, "Oleander" redirects here. The Egyptians apparently called it scinphe, the North Africans rhodedaphane, and the Lucanians (a southern Italic people) icmane. Although it does not require pruning to thrive and bloom, oleander can become unruly with age and older branches tend to become gangly, with new growth emerging from the base. Oleander is a good choice for informal hedges, shrub borders, and screen plantings. [13][14][15][16] It typically occurs around stream beds in river valleys, where it can alternatively tolerate long seasons of drought and inundation from winter rains. Temporary cardiac pacing will be required in many cases (usually for a few days) until the toxin is excreted. Ingestion of larger amounts may cause nausea, vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm. The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as suc… Retrieved on 2009-07-27., Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "The Terrace at Méric (Oleanders)", an 1867 Impressionist painting by, "The Rehearsal of the Flute Player and the Wife of Diomedes in the Atrium of Prince Napoleon's Pompeian House in Paris" (1861) by, Oleanders were famously referenced by the band, Oleander was used as a poison to kill mice, on, In the late 6th century/early 7th century AD, Oleander is the official flower of the city of, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 01:04. Sometimes also commonly called rosebay.Genus name comes from the classical Greek name.Specific epithet comes from the Italian oleandro for its olive-like leaves. [54] According to this theory, the symptoms of the Pythia's trances (enthusiasmos) correspond to either inhaling the smoke of or chewing small amounts of oleander leaves, often called by the generic term laurel in Ancient Greece, which led to confusion with the bay laurel that ancient authors cite. Purple, pink or white five-petaled funnel-shaped flowers in clusters (terminal cymes). New varieties are hybridized and grown on the Moody Gardens grounds, encompassing every named variety.[20]. There is hardly a German family in the most arid parts of Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, but has its oleander trees. Oleander grows to 2–6 m (6.6–19.7 ft) tall, with erect stems that splay outward as they mature; first-year stems have a glaucous bloom, while mature stems have a grayish bark. Genus Nerium are evergreen shrubs with linear or narrowly oblong leaves and terminal clusters of salver- or funnel-shaped flowers, followed by long, bean-like seed-pods Details N. oleander is an evergreen shrub with narrowly lance-shaped grey-green leaves and terminal clusters of salver-shaped, pink, white or red flowers 3-4cm across, in summer [55], Oleander was a very popular ornamental shrub in Roman peristyle gardens; it is one of the flora most frequently depicted on murals in Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy. The origins of the taxonomic name Nerium oleander, first assigned by Linnaeus in 1753, are disputed. Ther… Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine. Container plant for sunny decks, patios and other locations around the home. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. Nerium oleander /ˈnɪəriəm ˈoʊliːændər/,[1] most commonly known as oleander or nerium, is a shrub or small tree belonging to subfamily Apocynoideae of the dogbane family Apocynaceae and is cultivated worldwide in temperate and subtropical areas as an ornamental and landscaping plant. Watch for mealybugs, aphids and scale. Tweet; Description: It is an evergreen shrub (or small tree) that grows to approximately 6 m. A sticky latex is exuded if the stem is cut. The etymological association of oleander with the bay laurel has continued into the modern day: in France the plant is known as "laurier rose",[7] while the Spanish term, "Adelfa", is the descendant of the original Ancient Greek name for both the bay laurel and the oleander, daphne, which subsequently passed into Arabic usage and thence to Spain. ", "History - International Oleander Society", "Paris côté jardin Archives de mots clés Laurier Rose", "Jardin: Prolongez vous vos vacances en plantant in laurier-rose", "Shedding Light on Growing Oleanders Indoors", "Blooming Oleanders of the American Collection", "Gardening : Nerium oleander : Petite oleanders: Evergreen drought-tolerant dwarf shrubs with showy flowers", "Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation transport in the dog", "2 Toddlers Died from Oleander Poisoning, Coroner Says", "Dozens of horses poisoned at California farm", "A Bittersweet Story: The True Nature of the Laurel of the Oracle of Delphi", "Gustav Klimt, Two Girls With An Oleander". The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical of eudicots. The red, pink, or white fluffy flowers form in small clusters. [15] Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. Many of the oleander relatives, such as the desert rose (Adenium obesum) found in East Africa, have similar leaves and flowers and are equally toxic. Its relatively fine texture sets it apart from other landscape plants with less refined foliage. In the past, scented plants were sometimes treated as the distinct species, Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands, "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, entry for, Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, and D. J. Middleton. Erwin, Van den Enden. Wear gloves when pruning oleander. [29][30] The culprit is a bacterium called Xylella fastidiosa, which is spread via insects (the glassy-winged sharpshooter primarily) which feed on the tissue of oleanders and spread the bacteria. 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