Medication Uses | How To Use | Side Effects | Precautions | Drug Interactions | Overdose | Notes | Missed Dose | Storage | Medical Alert. Theophylline can cause nausea, vomiting, CNS stimulation, nervousness, and insomnia. OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. Easily compare tier status for drugs in the same class when considering an alternative drug for your patient. Not all brands are identical in action. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor. This medication works best if a constant level is maintained in the body. Toxicity. Medscape is the leading online destination for healthcare professionals seeking clinical information. The clearance of theophylline is increased by barbiturates, carbamazepine, lithium, phenytoin, rifampicin and sulphinpyrazone and it may therefore be necessary to increase dosage. Large amounts of char-broiled foods or a high protein, low carbohydrate diet can affect the action of this medication. It is used in the treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Neither at the low nor at the high dosage (2+4 mg/kg), giving plasma concentrations of 8.5±1.4 µg/ml, did enprofylline produce theophylline-like CNS effects, such as restlessness and tremor, but it did exhibit some of the innocuous side effects expected with xanthine derivatives, such as epigastric discomfort and headache. If capsules are too large to swallow, open the capsule and mix the contents with jelly or applesauce and swallow without chewing. More than 1000 clinical procedure articles provide clear, step-by-step instructions and include instructional videos and images to allow clinicians to master the newest techniques or to improve their skills in procedures they have performed previously. Common side effects are belching, bloating, stomach discomfort or upset, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, dizziness, and flushing. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment. Click on citations within drug and disease topics in our clinical reference to review the clinical evidence on MEDLINE. The amount found in chocolate is small enough that chocolate can, in general, is safely consumed by humans. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. It is expected that these xanthine derivatives show pharmacological actions such as tracheal relaxant and positive chronotropic ones, which are side effects when these xanthines are used as biochemical modulators. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. Theophylline may cause side effects. If stomach upset occurs, it may be taken with food. PRECAUTIONS: Avoid drinking large amounts of beverages containing caffeine (coffee, tea, colas) or eating large amounts of chocolate. Symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, wheezing, and chronic cough. Contraceptives/Xanthine Derivatives Interactions. Treatment of COPD includes GOLD guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and surgery. High doses of methylxanthines, especially caffeine, may potentially cause [94, 95, 96, 97, 33]: Headache; Nausea; Anxiety; Mood shift; Rapid heartbeat; Caffeine may also elevate blood pressure in high doses . Nausea, vomiting, diuresis, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, headaches, and tremors. Patients will need serum blood levels tested every six to twelve months. Alle drei haben eine schwache bis mittelstarke entwässernde Wirkung. The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. They should avoid irritants and drink fluids to help thin secretions. Xanthine derivatives have been used in allergic asthma for their bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties; however, these agents have multiple side effects. SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, heartburn, stomach pain, loss of appetite, restlessness, nervousness, sleeplessness or increased urination may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. DRUG INTERACTIONS: Inform your doctor about all the medicines you use (both prescription and nonprescription), especially if you take: cimetidine, erythromycin, troleandomycin, mexiletine, tacrine, barbiturates, disulfiram, rifampin, thiabendazole, birth control pills, rifabutin, ticlopidine, quinolone antibiotics, beta-blockers, phenytoin, fluvoxamine (an SSRI antidepressant), St John's wort. The incidence of severe side effects was much less frequent than mild side effects (1.2–3.8% to 20.1–38.7%). Topics are richly illustrated with more than 40,000 clinical photos, videos, diagrams, and radiographic images. Plus, search the MEDLINE database for journal articles. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088. Your dose may need to be adjusted. Terms of Use. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. All methylxanthines are generally safe and well-tolerated in moderate amounts normally present in foods and drinks. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine.The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. Title: Effect of Methylxanthine Derivatives on Doxorubicin Transport and Antitumor Activity VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 4 Author(s):A. Kakuyama (nee Iwazaki) and Y. Sadzuka Affiliation:Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University,45-1 Nagaotogecho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0101, Japan. Do not freeze liquid forms of this medication. 7. Prophylactic effects of xanthines against bronchoconstriction induced by an aerosol of ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs, or by aerosols of leukotriene D4 and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in normal guinea pigs, occurred by a mechanism unrelated to bronchodilation and could not be readily attributed to PDE inhibition or adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonism. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor. The display and use of drug information on this site is subject to express terms of use. USES: This medication improves breathing by opening air passages in the lungs. Customize your Medscape account with the health plans you accept, so that the information you need is saved and ready every time you look up a drug on our site or in the Medscape app. Choose from our complete list of over 1800 insurance plans across all 50 US states. Author information: (1)Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade, 29 Novembra 142, 11000, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Smoking affects this medication. [1] Patient Teaching & Education. For enrollment information call MedicAlert at 1-800-854-1166 (USA), or 1-800-668-1507 (Canada). A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. Symptoms of overdose may include unusually fast or slow heartbeat, loss of appetite, nausea/vomiting, sleeplessness, irritability, restlessness, headache, increased thirst, fever, ringing in ears, delirium, muscle twitching or weakness, seizures, sweating, or fast breathing. The xanthines are very rare causes of drug induced liver injury, most instances … Xanthines can cause a mild diuresis. SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, heartburn, stomach pain, loss of appetite, restlessness, nervousness, sleeplessness or increased urination may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. This copyrighted material has been downloaded from a licensed data provider and is not for distribution, except as may be authorized by the applicable terms of use. The frequency and severity of side effects depend on many factors including dose, duration of therapy, and individual susceptibility. More than 7100 monographs are provided for prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as for corresponding brand-name drugs, herbals, and supplements. The active ingredient in the drug is the compound Doxofylline that is a Xanthine derivative. Selected from data included with permission and copyrighted by First Databank, Inc. Xanthine Derivatives: Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Patient Handouts, Pricing and more from Medscape Reference More than 100 anatomy articles feature clinical images and diagrams of the human body's major systems and organs. 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